Phonograph Annotated Bibliography
Journals and Conferences
Carlson, R.E. 1954. Resonance, tracking, and distortion: An analysis of phonograph pickup arms. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 2:3 151–62.
- Detailed physical analysis of tonearm fundamental and torsional resonances. Physical characteristics of tonearms are then related to vertical stylus force, tracking error distortion, and lateral stylus force.
Dieter, N. 1960. Mechanical impedance at the stylus and the design of stereo phonograph cartridges. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Audio Engineering Society.
- A means of determing the mechanical impedance of a stylus and cartridge is described. Cartridge design is related to the desirable objectives of lower vertical forces and good tonearm design.
Goldmark, P., Snepvangers, R., and W. Bachman. 1949. The Columbia long-playing microgroove recording system. Proceedings of the IRE 37: 923–7.
- First paper detailing the specifications of the monophonic LP and its sonic benefits in comparison with 78 rpm and transcription vinyl.
Roys, H.E. 1968. The RIAA Engineering Committee. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Audio Engineering Society.
- Brief history of the standardization bulletins published by the RIAA for disc phonographs and magnetic tape.
Roys, H.E., ed. 1978. Disc recording and reproduction. Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Inc.
- Collection of 42 articles that cover all aspects of disc reproduction from pickups, distortions and corrections, to stereo and quadraphonic systems.
Roys, H.E. 1953. Distortion in phonograph reproduction. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 1:1 78–85.
- Analysis of three distortion measurement methods for phonograph reproduction: the harmonic, intermodulation, and difference frequency methods. They are tested using custom phonographs and compared based on their abilities to measure tracing distortion.
Smeby, L. 1942. Recording and Reproducing Standards. Proceedings of the IRE 30: 355–6.
- Details of recording characteristics, mechanicacl dimensions, rotational speeds and minimum required data for record labels as determined by the National Association of Broadcasters.
Animation of stereo groove modulation
- While vertical and lateral modulation were both used for 78 rpm mono, lateral modulation became the standard because of groove durability and the fact that large amplitudes of vertical modulation would virtually eliminate the groove. Instead of implementing stereo with vertical/lateral, problem of vertical avoided by compromising both sidewalls to modulate at 45 degrees to the disc surface normal, phase-shifted by 180 degrees.
Gramophone Wikipedia article
- Provides a great overall picture from history to materials and manufacturing.
RIAA dimensions and standards for 33, 45, and 78 rpm records
- Standards for stereophonic and monophonic disc records. Specifically, this is Bulletin E3 and E4 detailing the dimensional specifications of 33, 45, and 78 rpm disc recods as determined by the RIAA in 1963.
- Details of the RIAA equalization specification, as well as descriptions for enhanced versions.
Manufacturing vinyl discs
- Great background info on cutting vinyl master discs to manufacturing stampers.
- Reasonably priced (below $15,000) vinyl lathes.
Image to audio conversion - MUMT611 Slides
- Presentation on image to audio conversion for MUMT611 at McGill University by Simon de Leon. Overview of research status as of April 2006.
Sound Reproduction RD Page
- LBNL sound reproduction page containing movies, audio, and papers of Fadeyev and Haber's work for wax cylinders.